Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center

Chlorinated Solvents

Bioremediation Basic Concept
Bioremediation Basic Concept




Chlorinated solvents in groundwater can be teated by bioremedation technologies.  Bioremedation is a cost-effective treatment option. Available approaches for dissolved-phase plumes and DNAPL areas include monitored natural attenuation (MNA), enhanced anaerobic bioremediation (EAB), and combined technologies.



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T2 Tools (Technology Transfer (T2) Informational Tools)
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Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Overview T2 Training Tool

Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Overview T2 Tool             Text/Print/Alt Browser Version

Biodegradation mechanisms are a cost-effective treatment option for sites where groundwater is contaminated with chlorinated solvents. This tool provides an overview of bioremediation approaches including monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and enhanced anaerobic bioremediation (EAB).


Other Technology Transfer (T2) Informational Tools Related to Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents

DCE Stall                                                                                            Alt-Browser/Text/Print Version

Dichloroethylene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) stall is an issue at several sites due to limitations preventing the complete dechlorination of the chlorinated ethenes to ethene. This tool provides site limitations that may lead to DCE/VC stall and potential solutions including physical, biogeochemical, biostimulation, and bioaugmentation approaches.

Molecular Biological Tools                                                                        Alt-Browser/Text/Print Version

This tool provides an introduction to the use of molecular biological tools (MBTs) in environmental restoration applications.  The tool discusses MBTs applied through gene-based, protein-based, lipid-based and isotope-based laboratory approaches to investigate the presence and metabolic activity of microbes.

Permeable Mulch Biowalls                                                                       Alt-Browser/Text/Print Version

This tool covers the treatment of contaminated groundwater using mulch biowalls and reviews the mechanism by which the contaminants are degraded. Considerations when designing and installing a biowall are explained. Two case studies are presented where mulch biowalls were installed.

DNAPL Management Overview, NAVFAC (April 2007) (Publication)
This handbook provides an introduction on how to manage DNAPL contamination at a site. Because DNAPL sites can be very challenging, this document focuses heavily on the limitations of characterizing and removing DNAPL and how to make realistic management decisions in the midst of these uncertainties.

Groundwater Risk Management Handbook NAVFAC (25 January 2008)   (Publication)
This handbook provides an overview of challenging site conditions for groundwater plumes and summarizes risk management strategies such as establishing points of compliance (POCs), alternate concentration limits (ACLs), performing mixing zone analyses, and Technical Impracticability (TI) waivers.


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Case Studies


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     Policy & Guidance           Publications               RITS               Related Sites    


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Policy and Guidance


Keywords Title and Description Pages Size
ITRC guidance webpage Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Guidance for Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents weboage
This webpage, provided by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) presents several guidance documents  under the heading "Bioremediation".
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In Situ treatment


EPA OSWER Guidance Memo: Applicability of RCRA Section 3020 to In Situ Treatment of Groundwater (27 December 2000) 
Clarifies that re-injection of treated ground water to promote in situ treatment is allowed under RCRA Section 3020(b) if certain conditions are met.
8 458


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     Title and Description Pages Size

Application Guide for Bioslurping -Vol I, NAVFAC ESC TM-2300 (October 1998)

An abbreviated version of principles and practices of bioslurping so an RPM can make prelimReductive dechlorination is a promising process for biodegradation of chlorinated solvents. The successful field evaluation and implementation of the reductive dechlorination process is dependent on a comprehensive understanding of contaminant, geochemical, and microbial data. Nucleic acid-based tools are commercially available to identify relevant Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacteria. These tools detect and quantify Dhc 16S rRNA genes and three Dhc reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes involved in the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. The application of nucleic acid-based molecular biological tools (MBTs) can result in significant cost reductions and reduced project time-lines.inary decisions quickly.

18 223

Application Guide for Bioslurping -Vol II, NAVFAC ESC TM-2301 (October 1998)

Detailed description of the bioslurper system, testing procedures, and system design, operation, monitoring and approach for site closure.

167 1421

Assessing the Feasibility of DNAPL Source Zone Remediation: Review of Case Studies (CR-04-002-ENV, May, 2004)

This report discusses developing guidelines for selecting DNAPL source remediation guidelines by reviewing various DNAPL treatment technologies that have been field-deployed.

293 5823

Bioslurping - Low Volatility Fuels Recovery Brochure, NAVFAC ESC (March 2000)

Bioslurping teams vacuum enhanced free product recovery with bioventing. Naval Air Station Fallon project is highlighted.

2 74

MTBE Control and Containment Factsheet - NB Ventura County, Port Hueneme Site (April 2001)

Leakage of gasoline containing MTBE is being addressed through several successful pilot tests. The MTBE plume presents no risk to drinking water.

2 103

Remediation of Diesel and Fuel Hydrocarbons in High Clay Content Soils (March 2000)

Remediation of Diesel & Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in High Clay Content Soils: A Field Comparison of Amendment Performance Conducted at Mare Island Naval Shipyard.

7 41

Overview of In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene DNAPL Source Zones, ITRC (October 2005)


89 5736

In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene DNAPL Source Zones: Case Studies, ITRC (April 2007)


173 3246

ITRC  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practices, ITRC (September 1999)


123 1703

Nucleic Acid-Based Tools
Monitored Natural Attenuation
chlorinated solvents

Guidance Protocol: Application of Nucleic Acid-Based Tools for Monitoring Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), Biostimulation, and Bioaugmentation at Chlorinated Solvent Sites, ESTCP Project ER0518, NAVFAC ESC CR-11-027-ENV (Feb 2011)


35 320

Enhance Reductive Dechlorination


Design Consideration For Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination, NAVFAC EXWC TM-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1501 (March 2015)

Key CSM elements and potential to ERD designs.Consideration of Site Lithology and its effects.

49 372

In Situ Chemical Oxidation


Design Considerations for In Situ Chemical Oxidation, NAVFAC EXWC TM-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1502 (March 2015)

The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for design submittals of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) systems. Provides summary of the best practices for ISCO design, tips for appropriate quality assurance and quality control measures.

33 394



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RITS - Remediation Innovative Technology Seminars


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Related Sites

   Title and Description Pages Size

Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC)In Situ Bioremediation Webpage


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U.S. EPA CLU-IN Bioremediation Overview Webpage


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U.S. EPA CLU-IN DNAPL Overview Webpage


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Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide, Version 4.0 Section 3.9 In Situ Biological Treatment for Groundwater, Surface Water, and Leachate Webpage


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Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) Remediation Technology Assessment Reports - Bioremediation


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Large Dilute Plumes - Challenges and Opportunities, webinar presentation by Federal Remediation Technologies Rountable (FRTR) and U.S. Navy (1 May 2013)

Recently, "large-dilute plumes" of chlorinated solvents have emerged as a peculiar challenge in environmental clean-up. This class of plume has several defining characteristics. These characteristics include biogeochemical conditions that result in slow contaminant degradation and that allow plume expansion, as well as matrix diffusion that results in secondary sources and that extends remediation timeframe. Research at these sites has highlighted key challenges and potential opportunities. Complicated fine-scale heterogeneity resulting from the interaction of migrating contaminants with subsurface lithology and hydrology is a particularly significant and recurring challenge — resulting in concentrated plume cores and the need for innovative-focused characterization and monitoring.

Recorded- 2 Hours

slides -  104 pgs

Recorded- view online

slides - 35,312



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