Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center

Green and Sustainable Remediation



The Department of the Navy (DON) has been working to optimize the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program through the use of green and sustainable remediation (GSR) practices. GSR can help to ensure that requirements are met, while reducing potential negative environmental, societal, and economic impacts that could occur during or as a result of remedial actions.






DON has implemented GSR as part of its existing optimization program as stated in the Policy for Optimizing Remedial and Removal Actions at All DON ER Program Sites (2012). This policy requires optimization and GSR evaluations at key times during the CERCLA process as shown below. In addition GSR best management practices (BMPs) should be employed during the remedial investigation (RI), remedial action construction (RA-C), remedial action operations (RA-O), and long-term management (LTMgt) phases.



The following metrics have been identified for inclusion in Navy GSR evaluations:

  • Energy Consumption
  • Greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions
  • Criteria Pollutant Emissions
  • Water Impacts
  • Ecological Impacts
  • Resource Consumption/Waste Generation
  • Worker Safety
  • Community Impacts

These metrics can be mapped onto existing regulatory frameworks such as CERCLA or RCRA. They can also be expanded or reduced based on site, technology, or stakeholder specific information. More detailed information on GSR metrics, GSR evaluation tools, GSR BMPs, and case studies can be found in the resources listed below.


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  T2 Tools  

Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) Tool

This tool discusses the drivers promoting the use of GSR and defines the metrics to be considered when determining the environmental footprint of a remedial alternative.

Print/Text Version




SiteWise™ Tool - Developed by the Department of the Navy, Army Corps of Engineers, & Battelle

The SiteWise™ tool is designed to calculate the environmental footprint of remedial alternatives. The tool is a series of Microsoft Excel™ sheets and provides an assessment of several quantifiable sustainability metrics including: GHG emissions; energy usage; electricity usage; criteria air pollutants; water usage; and accident risk. In addition to terrestrial sites, SiteWise™ Version 3.2 has been updated for sediment sites.

SiteWise™ 3.2 Files are located in the following .Zip File. Download the file to your computer to use the tool. 

SiteWise™ 3.2


Input Sheet

The input sheet is what is opened first and is the location where all data are entered.  The input sheet has a tab for each of the four Components of a remedy, which may be renamed to typical remedial phases: RI, FS, CMS, RAC, RA-O, and LTM.  It also includes the look-up table as a tab.  The lookup table contains referenced data that are used as the basis for calculating the GSR metrics.  The Input Sheet also includes a Calculations tab, where emissions resulting from custom electricity profiles and material requirements for groundwater monitoring wells may be calculated.  Lastly, it includes a Footprint Reduction tab, where emissions reduction technologies can be applied to the calculation of the remedy footprint.

Calculation Sheets (Components 1-4)

The worksheets representing Component 1, Component 2, Component 3, and Component 4 are referred to hereafter as calculation sheets.  These are linked to the input sheet such that they receive the data that were entered by the user into the input sheet.  The calculation sheets contain activities related to material production, transportation of personnel and materials, equipment use (pumps, electrical equipment, earthwork, and other miscellaneous equipment), and residual handling.  All activities are set up as different tabs of a worksheet.  The calculation sheets are not for data entry and are available to provide the user with an option to go into the backend of the tool to see how calculations are being done by SiteWiseTM (discussed further in Section 5.6). In addition, reviewing the calculation sheets allows the user to obtain detailed information about what specific aspects of the remedy are contributing the most to the remedy footprint.  For example, the user can see the footprint associated with each consumable and each piece of equipment.


The summary sheet can be used to review outputs from the different calculation sheets.  The summary sheet also has an extra tab that compares the components of the remedial alternative and helps identify the activities that result in the greatest footprint.  Summary sheets of the different remedial alternatives are linked to the final summary sheet that compares the different remedial alternatives.

Final Summary

The final summary file in the tool is for comparative analysis of multiple alternatives inputted into the tool.



SiteWise User Guide

SiteWise™ User Guide Version 3.2 (August 2019)

SiteWiseTM is designed to calculate the environmental footprint of remedial alternatives. The tool is a series of Excel sheets and provides a detailed assessment of several sustainability metrics.



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              Policy and Guidance                              Publications                    Videos                  Related Sites               


Policy and Guidance

Keywords Title and Description pages Size (KB)


Sustainability Goals

EO 13693

Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade (March 25, 2015)

EO 13693 was released in March 2015 and supersedes EO 13514 and EO 13423. The EO promotes Federal leadership in energy, environmental, water, fleet, buildings, and acquisition management to support GHG reductions and to prepare for the impacts of climate change.

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Federal Leadership




Executive Order

Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance  (October 8, 2009)

Superseded by EO 13693. EO 13514 was released in October of 2009 and calls for reductions in greenhouse gases (GHGs), energy consumption, and potable and industrial water use by Federal agencies. The EO also encourages Federal agencies to consider green buildings, waste minimization, sustainable acquisitions, electronic stewardship, and local and regional planning to promote sustainable living and public transit systems on installations.

11 152





Executive Order

Executive Order 14323: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management (January 26, 2007)

Superseded by EO 13693. EO 13423 was released in January of 2007 and states that it is the policy of the United States that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities under the law in support of their respective missions in an environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continuously improving, efficient, and sustainable manner.

7 200

Department of Defense Manual, Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) Management, Publication Number 4715.20 (March 2012)

The 2012 DERP Manual instructs DoD Components to consider and implement GSR opportunities when feasible and ensure the use of GSR remediation practices where practicable based on economic and social benefits as well as costs.

95 797

DoD Policy

Green and Sustainable Remediation


DoD Environmental Restoration

DoD Memo Consideration of Green and Sustainable Remediation Practices in the Defense Environmental Restoration Program, DUSD (I&E) Memo (August 2009)

The memorandum states that the DoD is committed to conduct its environmental program in a sustainable manner. The memorandum also stresses the need to reduce the energy demand of the existing and future remedial systems and consider other available options to minimize the environmental impact of these systems.

2 118

DoD Policy


DON Policy for Optimizing Remedial and Removal Actions at all DON Environmental Restoration Program Navy Sites (April 2012)

This policy requires optimization and GSR reviews at key stages in the CERCLA process.

12 1013

DON Guidance


DON Guidance on Green Sustainable Remediation, UG-2093-ENV, Rev.1 (April 2012)

This guidance provides the foundation for the Navy’s GSR initiatives and defines key GSR metrics.

114 2478


GSR Policy & Guidance

US EPA Policies & Guidance

US EPA regions 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 have issued a policy on green remediation. Most of the policy is geared toward making EPA Project Managers consider green remediation practices for their projects.




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Keywords Title and Description Pages Size (KB)
Best Management Practices

NAVFAC Green and Sustainable Remediation Best Management Practices (BMP) Tech Memo (September 2016)

This tech memo summarizes GSR BMPs for commonly used remediation technologies in order to further promote their adoption. The technologies covered include air sparging, biosparging, soil vapor extraction (SVE), enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), thermal treatment, groundwater extraction and treatment (GWET), and excavation.

22 750
Best Management Practices

NAVFAC Green and Sustainable Remediation Best Management Practices (BMP) Screening Table (September 2016)


2 21
Sustainable Remedaition

Sustainable Sediment Remediation White Paper (Sept 2015)

This white paper provides a connection between existing DON Optimization/GSR guidance and DON guidance pertaining to sediment sites. It serves to introduce a new version of SiteWise that has been developed to integrate sediment-specific remedial activities.

55 3,025

in situ chemical oxidation


Design Considerations for In Situ Chemical Oxidation, NAVFAC EXWC TM-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1502 (March 2015)

The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for design submittals of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) systems. Provides a summary of GSR BMPs for ISCO design.

33 394

enhanced reductive dechlorination


Design Considerations For Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination, NAVFAC EXWC TM-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1501 (March 2015)

The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for design submittals of enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) systems. Provides a summary of GSR BMPs for ERD design.

49 372


case studies

A Review of Green and Sustainable Remediation Practices at NAVFAC Environmental Restoration Sites - A Review, NAVFAC EXWC, TM-NAVFAC EXWC-EV-1439 (June 2014)

A review is provided of BMPs and lessons learned from the application of GSR metrics at Navy and Marine Corps sites nationwide.

213 19,405
GSR Metrics

Green and Sustainable Remediation Fact Sheet, NAVFAC EXWC (May 2014)

This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to green and sustainable remediation (GSR) metrics and footprint reduction practices.

4 1,900
SiteWiseTM 3.0

SiteWise™ 3.0 Tech Data Sheet, TDS-NAVFC EXWC-EV-1402 (December 2013)

SiteWise is an Excel-based calculation tool designed to determine footprints of environmental restoration actions in terms of selected metrics such as GHG emissions, energy consumption, criteria air pollutant emissions, water consumption, and worker safety.

2 80
life cycle assessment

Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP): Quantifying Life-Cycle Environmental Footprints of Soil and Groundwater Remedies (July 2013)

A demonstration/validation of the SiteWiseTM tool was performed for three Army and Navy installations. SiteWiseTM was compared against another commercially available life-cycle assessment software package.



Feasibility Study

CERCLA nine criteria

GSR-Integrating Green Sustainable Remediation Metrics within the CERCLA Process during the Feasibility Study, NAVFAC ESC (July 2012)

This white paper focuses on GSR metrics and their incorporation into the nine criteria for alternatives analysis during remedy evaluation phase. An example case study of GSR being incorporated into the remedy selection process is also provided.

13 95



Remedial Alternatives Analysis (RAA) Guidance, NAVFAC EXWC (April 2012)

Navy guidance on selecting remedial alternatives.

13 125

Remedial Alternatives Analysis (RAA) Template, NAVFAC EXWC (April 2012)

A template that can be used to compare applicable remedies for a site. 

6 52

SiteWiseTM 2.0

footprint calculator

SiteWise Version 2 Updates Presentation, ER Conference (March 2011)

A presentation on how to use of SiteWiseTM Version 2.0.

21 201


Back to resources

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Topics    Title and Description   Run Time  Size (kb)  
Green and Sustainable Remediation Green Sustainable Remediation Video     3 Minutes 20,108
Footprint analysis SiteWise Video - Part 1 (slides 1-13) 18 Minutes 75,846
Footprint analysis SiteWise Video - Part 2 (slides 14-30) 22 Minutes 96,709
Footprint analysis SiteWise Video - Part 3 (slides 31-end) 27 Minutes 27,727



Related Sites

Keywords Title and Description    Pages     Size (KB)
Optimization Workgroup

NAVFAC Optimization Work Group Webpage





US Army Corps of Engineers Sustainability Webpage




Final Study Report: Evaluation of Consideration and Incorporation of Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) Practices in Army Environmental Remediation (2 volumes), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (27 August 2012)

Vo 1: 505pgs

Vol 2: 1568pg

6.6 MB

30.4 MB



Decision Framework for Incorporation of Green and Sustainable Practices into Environmental Remediation Projects, Interim Guidance, U.S, Army Corps of Engineers  (5 March 2010)





US Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory n/a
Green Remediation

US EPA Green Remediation



US EPA Sustainability Webpage



Green Remediation


ITRC Green and Sustainable Remediation Team


GSR Tools From Other Agencies
GREET Argonne National Laboratories Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model
BEES U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES)

US EPA Methodology & Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint Analysis (SEFA)

IWEM US EPA Industrial Waste Management Evaluation Model (IWEM)
WARM US EPA Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

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