Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center

Long-Term Management

Navy site with “Area Closed” sign

 

 

Overview

The Long-Term Management (LTMgt) phase of the Navy’s Environmental Restoration (ER) Program involves monitoring to confirm that the remedy stays protective.  The LTMgt phase is required at sites where hazardous substances, pollutants, contaminants, or munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) remain above levels that would allow for unlimited use and unrestricted exposure (UU/UE). 

Courtesy of U.S. Navy (RITS Spring 2005)

 

For example, LTMgt may be required at several types of ER sites, including landfills, sites with long-term groundwater remedies, sites with sediment monitoring requirements, and sites with land use controls (LUCs). 

In addition, LUCs and Five-Year Reviews may be required if the remedial action will result in contaminant levels above those that allow for UU/UE.  As the ER Program matures and the majority of sites achieve the Remedy-in-Place (RIP) milestone, more ER sites will move into the LTMgt phase over time.  This page provides links to resources related to implementing and optimizing the LTMgt phase at ER sites.

 

          T2 Tools                   Process                    Resources         

 

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T2 Tools (Technology Transfer (T2) Informational Tools)     

 

SiteWise™

SiteWise™ is a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool designed to calculate the environmental footprint of remedial alternatives. 

To obtain a copy of SiteWise, please visit our Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) page.

 

 

 

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Process

The Long-Term Management (LTMgt) phase is required at sites where hazardous substances, pollutants, contaminants, or munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) remain above levels that would allow for unlimited use and unrestricted exposure (UU/UE).  Several activities may take place during the LTMgt phase including Long-Term Monitoring (LTM), Land Use Control (LUC) Maintenance, and Five-Year Reviews.  Each of these activities is described in more detail in the subtabs listed above.

 

Long-Term Monitoring (LTM)

At many Environmental Restoration (ER) sites, the LTMgt phase may involve LTM of groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, soil vapor, ecological resources, or other environmental media.  A site-specific plan is required for all LTM actions.  The Department of the Navy (DON’s) Guidance for Planning and Optimizing Monitoring Strategies, NAVFAC ESC UG-2081-ENV rev1 (November 2010) provides detailed information and procedures to establish and implement cost-effective LTM programs.

A systematic process should be followed for optimizing LTM programs.  The optimization process focuses on collecting relevant data of the appropriate quality to achieve program goals.  Several steps are involved in developing an LTM program, including clearly defining the monitoring program goals; identifying the key decisions to be made during the monitoring program; identifying the specific data quality objectives (DQOs); updating the conceptual site model (CSM); and specifying the decision criteria that will be relied upon to help make decisions and to ultimately close out the monitoring program.

Once the DQOs have been established, five general components ensure a cost-effective LTM program:
-----Optimizing the number and placement of monitoring points;
-----Minimizing monitoring duration and/or frequency;
-----Simplifying analytical protocols;
-----Ensuring efficient field procedures and techniques; and
-----Streamlining data management, evaluation, and reporting.

Ideally, these principles are applied when first designing the LTM program and are continually revisited throughout the LTMgt phase. The Management and Monitoring Approach (MMA), NAVFAC EV (3 May 2012) provides a format for documenting the application of these principles with a focus on decision-focused data management, evaluation and reporting.

The DON Guidance for Planning and Optimizing Monitoring Strategies NAVFAC ESC UG-2081-ENV Rev1, November 2010 should be reviewed for more specific information on LTM strategies for various media including groundwater, sediments, surface water, ecological resources, vadose zone, and landfills.  This guidance also includes a discussion of passive sampling techniques that can be used to reduce the environmental footprint of LTM activities.

The use of passive sampling techniques was identified as an opportunity to implement green and sustainable remediation (GSR) practices in the LTMgt phase in accordance with the DoD Memo Consideration of Green and Sustainable Remediation Practices in the Defense Environmental Restoration Program, DUSD (I&E) Memo dated 10 Aug 2009  NAVFAC templates are also available for the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAPs) and post-Record of Decision (ROD) site management and monitoring reports as described under the Resources section of this Web page.

 

Land Use Control (LUC) Maintenance

Most ER sites requiring LTMgt are expected to have LUCs.  LUCs are engineered or physical controls and/or administrative or legal mechanisms that are designed to protect public health and the environment from residual contamination or MEC at ER sites.  LUCs are implemented whenever a site cannot support UU/UE.

Navy RPMs should be familiar with the appropriate LUC implementation policies and procedures as defined in SECNAV Policy for Monitoring and Enforcement of Land Use Controls, Department of the Navy Office of the Secretary Memo dated 2 April 2003.  This policy describes how to formulate LUC objectives in a ROD and how to document LUC implementation actions through a Remedial Design (RD) or Remedial Action Work Plan (RAWP).

There are two types of LUCs including engineering controls (ECs) and institutional controls (ICs).  ECs consist of engineering measures designed to minimize the potential for human exposure to contamination or MEC hazards by limiting direct contact with affected areas; reducing contamination levels; or controlling migration of contaminants through environmental media.  Examples of ECs include fences, signs, landfill caps, provision of potable water, slurry walls, hydraulic control of groundwater, and monitoring wells.

ICs are non-engineered instruments such as administrative and/or legal controls that are designed to minimize the potential for human exposure to contamination by limiting land or resource use and/or by providing information to help modify or guide human behavior at the site.  ICs include affirmative and negative easements, affirmative and restrictive covenants, equitable servitudes, notices (in deeds, newspapers, etc.), zoning, permits (such as construction, excavation, well drilling, etc.), and reporting on LUC maintenance.  At active DON installations, typical ICs may typically include restrictions on well drilling, soil excavation, and construction at ER sites.

Other provisions may apply when the property is transferred to a non-federal entity at the completion of or during the LTMgt phase and DON policy should be consulted for more details.

Once LUCs have been implemented, they require periodic monitoring and other activities to ensure that LUC objectives are being met and that protectiveness is adequately maintained.  The DON wants to ensure that all LUC data from Navy installations are managed effectively and has therefore developed a Web-based management tool called LUC Tracker as part of the Naval Installation Restoration Information Solution (NIRIS).  LUC Tracker provides for easy LUC data access for RPMs; efficient tracking of LUC integrity and compliance; and standard LUC data formats for interoperability among ER sites.  Click here for more information on the use of LUC Tracker.  NIRIS LUC Tracker Quick Reference Guide, NAVFAC (Mar 2011).

 

Five Year Reviews

A Five-Year Review is required at an ER site if the remedial action will result in any hazardous substances, pollutants, contaminants, or MEC remaining at the site above levels that allow for UU/UE or if the response action to reach UU/UE will not be completed within five years.

The purpose of the Five-Year Review is to evaluate the performance of the implemented remedy in order to verify that the remedy remains protective of human health and the environment.  The existing remedy can be modified if it is determined to be no longer protective of human health and the environment. 

DON has a policy for Navy/Marine Corps Policy for CERCLA Five Year Reviews, CNO 5090 N453 Ser/11U158119 (7 June 2011).  This policy clarifies when DON will conduct Five-Year Reviews for remedial actions and describes the scope and format of these reviews.  The policy defines the “trigger” for the Five-Year Review clock and defines how installations with multiple sites are to be handled.

In addition, the policy provides direction on due dates; scope of the review; requirements and guidance for scheduling; guidance on technical assessment; situations where risk assessments should be revisited; direction for including new exposure pathways and emergent contaminants; report structure; funding; community involvement; review and signature authority; and discontinuing the Five-Year Reviews.

 

 

 

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Resources

     Policy & Guidance            Publications             RITS            Related Sites    

 

 

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Policy and Guidance

Topics Title and Description Pages Size (KB)

Green Sustainable Remediation

Remedial Alternatives Analysis (RAA)

Management and Monitoring Approach (MMA)

DON Guidance on Green Sustainable Remediation, NAVFAC ESC UG-2093-ENV, Rev1 (5 April 2012))

This policy clarifies when optimization reviews are necessary and provides effective remedial strategies to meet remedial action objectives.  It mandates the following actions at Environmental Restoration (ER) sites: 1) green and sustainable remediation (GSR) be incorporated into the optimization process; 2) a Remedial Alternatives Analysis (RAA) be performed to ensure sites have been effectively optimized; and 3) ensuring the use of the SiteWise™ tool in all GSR actions.   It also recommends the use of the Management and Monitoring Approach (MMA) for ER sites to facilitate the documentation of effective monitoring efforts during the optimization process.

114 2478

DoD

Green Sustainable Remediation

EO 13423

DoD Memo Consideration of Green and Sustainable Remediation Practices in the Defense Environmental Restoration Program, DUSD (I&E) Memo dated 10 Aug 2009

The Office of Under Secretary of Defense released The Green and Sustainable Remediation Memorandum in August of 2009. The memorandum states that the DoD is committed to conduct its environmental program in a sustainable manner, in line with the executive order (EO) 13423. The memorandum also stresses the need to reduce the energy demand of the existing and future remedial systems and consider other available options to minimize the environmental impact of these systems. The memorandum requests every DoD component to apprise the Office of Under Secretary of Defense by December 2009 about the initiatives undertaken by all the DoD components for implementing green and sustainable options in their environmental restoration programs.

2 118

CERCLA Five-Year Reviews

Navy/Marine Corps

Navy/Marine Corps Policy for CERCLA Five Year Reviews, CNO 5090 N453 Ser/11U158119 (7 June 2011)

This policy clarifies when Five-Year Reviews are necessary, describes the scope and format of the reviews, defines the trigger date, and identifies the signature authority.  Final Five-Year Review reports for an installation must be completed and signed within five years of the established trigger dates, including the time to undertake appropriate regulatory reviews.

13 1607
Sampling and Analysis Plans Tiered Approach

NAVFAC Tiered Approach for Developing Sampling and Analysis Plans, NAVFAC Letter 5090 Ser 11007/EV3KPB (3 Jun 2011)

This letter provides guidance for the use and development of sampling and analysis plans using a tiered approach and employing a systematic planning process.

3 40
SAP-Tier 1

UFP-SAP Tier I Sampling and Analysis Plan Template, NAVFAC (Feb 2011)

Enclosure 1 (one of two) to NAVFAC Tiered Approach for Developing Sampling and Analysis Plans (3 Jun 2011).

42 238
SAP-Tier 2

UFP-SAP Tier 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan Template, NAVFAC (Feb 2011)

Enclosure 2 (two of two) to NAVFAC Tiered Approach for Developing Sampling and Analysis Plans (3 Jun 2011).

21 167

Optimization

Planning

Monitoring

Department of Navy Guidance for Planning and Optimizing Monitoring Strategies NAVFAC ESC UG-2081-ENV Rev1, November 2010

This guidance document provides information on the planning and optimizing monitoring programs for ER sites. Part I provides detailed discussion on considerations that are applicable to all monitoring programs.  Part II provides individual chapters that focus on monitoring for specific media types or specific site types including groundwater, sediments, groundwater discharge to surface water, ecological resources, vadose zone, landfills, and land use controls.

250 3911

DoD

Green Sustainable Remediation

DoD Memo Consideration of Green and Sustainable Remediation Practices in the Defense Environmental Restoration Program, DUSD (I&E) Memo dated 10 Aug 2009

This memorandum states that the DoD is committed to conduct its environmental program in a sustainable manner, in line with Executive Order (EO) 13423.  The memorandum also stresses the need to reduce the energy demand of the existing and future remedial systems and consider other available options to minimize the environmental impact of these systems.  Passive sampling approaches are recommended under this memorandum.

2 118

SECNAV

Monitoring

Land Use Controls

SECNAV Policy for Monitoring and Enforcement of Land Use Controls, Department of the Navy Office of the Secretary Memo dated 2 April 2003

This policy describes how to formulate land use control objectives in a Record of Decision (ROD) and how to document implementation actions through a Remedial Design (RD) or Remedial Action Work Plan (RAWP). 

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Publications

Topics Title and Description Pages Size (KB)

sustainable

LTM

Landfill

Sustainable Long Term Management of Landfills under the Navy's ER program (April 2016)

Sustainable long-term management (SLM) helps to minimize the lifecycle depletion of energy, material resources, and financial resources. This fact sheet describes SLM strategies that may be suitable for landfills managed under the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) programs. Issues addressed include passive controls, optimized landfill cap design and maintenance, long-term monitoring, beneficial reuse, clean closure considerations, and shoreline erosion protection issues.

2 4260
Five-Year Review Toolkit

Five-Year Reviews Toolkit for Preparation, NAVFAC (December 2013)

A Five-Year Review Toolkit has been developed to provide a template for the preparation of high quality, user-friendly Five-Year Review documents, which focus on ensuring that remedial action objectives support the protectiveness statement.

17 55936
Management and Monitoring Approach (MMA)

Management and Monitoring Approach (MMA) Presentation, NAVFAC EV(3 May 2012)

This document presents a standardized approach for site management and documentation and optimization of post-Record of Decision (ROD) site management and monitoring.

30 9156
MMA Optimization Tools

Management and Monitorin Approach Presentation Attachment-Optimization Tools, NAVFAC EV (3 May 2012)

This attachment to the MMA includes a summary of software tools such as GTS, MAROS, Natural Attenuation Software, REMchlor, SADA, SitewiseTM, Summit, and others.

10 12595

Long-Term Monitoring

DON ER Sites

Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring at Environmental Restoration Sites  Cost and Performance Report (ESTCP ER-0629), NAVFAC ESC TR-2322-ENV (October 2009)

The primary objective of this ESTCP project was to demonstrate and validate the use of the Sampling Optimizer and Data Tracker software offered by Summit Envirosolutions, at three DoD sites. The three demonstration sites were as follows: Former George Air Force Base Site, Victorville, CA (GAFB site), Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site, Mead, NE (NOP site), and Camp Allen Landfill Site, Norfolk, VA (Camp Allen site). MAROS was also applied at one of the three demonstration sites. The Summit Software demonstrated in this ESTCP project provides a set of tools for Long-Term Monitoring Optimization (LTMO), and consists of two major modules: Sampling Optimizer (SO) identifies redundant sampling locations (spatial optimization), or redundant locations and frequencies (spatiotemporal optimization), in historical data. Data Tracker (DT) allows current monitoring data to be reviewed against selected historical data (i.e., the "background data") to identify cases where current data deviate from expectations that are based on the background values and patterns

50 750
Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring

Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring at Environmental Restoration Sites-ESTCP ER-0629, NAVFAC ESC-TR-2317-ENV, (May 2009)

This document proposes a comprehensive and flexible approach, referred to as 'adaptive site management,' for dealing with difficult-to-remediate hazardous waste sites at Navy facilities.

419 7046

LTM Optimization Software

RITS2009

Long-Term Monitoring Optimization Software (Fall RITS 2009) (currently not available on public web, contact EXWC_T2@navy.mil for file)

Three software packages for optimizing long-term monitoring are discussed including Summit monitoring tools, MAROS, and GTS.  These optimization tools each offer some unique features and can be used to minimize redundancy in monitoring well networks.  A discussion of costs, benefits, limitations, and regulatory issues is included followed by a case study where the Summit monitoring software was used at a Navy cleanup site.

   
Long-Term Management

Long-Term Site Management (Fall RITS 2007)  (currently not available on public web, contact EXWC_T2@navy.mil for file)

Key aspects of long-term site management were presented including developing a management plan to ensure that protectiveness is maintained; optimizing long-term monitoring; tracking the effectiveness of land use controls; conducting Five-Year Reviews; participating in public awareness programs; and reaching site closure.

   
       
       

 

 

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Related Sites

Topics Title and Description Sponsor
Green Sustainable Remediation

NAVFAC ERB Green and Sustainable Remediation Web Page

This Web page is a collection of resources for Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) who are interested in implementing green and sustainable remediation (GSR) practices. The Department of Navy (DON) GSR metrics are discussed, along with methodologies for determining the environmental footprint of a remedial alternative.  The SiteWiseTM software and associated training materials are also available on this Web page.

NAVFAC
NIRIS

NAVFAC ERB NIRIS Web Page

NIRIS is a Web-based system that manages the Navy's environmental data, documents and records related to cleanup of hazardous waste sites.  It includes LUC Tracker, which is used to manage land use control (LUC) data.

Optimization

NAVFAC ERB Optimization Work Group Page


The goal of the Optimization Work Group is to promote the optimization of remedial actions (including monitoring) with the ultimate purpose of achieving efficient, protective, and cost-effective site closures.

NAVFAC
BRAC

Department of the Navy BRAC Program Management Office

The DON Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Program Management Office's (PMO) mission is to expeditiously and cost-effectively provide all services necessary to realign, close, and dispose of DON BRAC properties through sound business management practices.

DON
Adaptive LTM

DoD ESTCP Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring at Environmental Restoration Sites

The primary objective of this ESTCP (Environmental Environmental Security Technology Certification Program) project was to demonstrate and validate software for long-term monitoring optimization at three DoD sites including Former George Air Force Base, Victorville, CA; Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site, Mead, NE; and Camp Allen Landfill Site, Norfolk, VA.

DoD ESTCP

LTM Optimization

U.S. EPA Clu-in Application of Long-Term Monitoring Optimization Technologies

U.S. EPA’s Web site, which publishes the latest reports and studies related to long-term monitoring optimization.

US EPA CLU-IN
Institutional Controls

U.S. EPA Institutional Controls Guidance Web Page

U.S. EPA information on the implementation of institutional controls including guidance, workshops, and training materials.

US EPA
   

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