Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center

Contaminants

Contaminants

Overview

 

The cleanup of Department of the Navy (DON) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) sites poses a major challenge because of the wide variety of activities conducted at these sites over time. Depending on the types of contaminants found, there may be specific investigation or remedial steps that will need to be considered.  

Jump to Resources to access Policies & Guidance, Publications, Related Sites, and Tools

 

Process

 

Most DON installations (or former installations) have provided a variety of support functions for aircraft, submarines, and ships. The types of facilities associated with past contaminant releases include primarily underground storage tanks, tank farms, firefighting training areas, landfills, paint shops, plating shops, cleaning/degreasing operations, dry cleaners, and ordnance/firing ranges. Historic waste management practices associated with these activities may have resulted in the release of contaminants to soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediment.

The environmental impacts from historic releases at these sites are caused primarily by petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater, chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) in groundwater and indoor air, and metals in soil and groundwater. In addition, metals and persistent contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be found in sediment as a result of stormwater runoff over time. Some installations also have contamination as a result of munitions response activities and/or the use of materials containing emerging contaminants.

The majority of these releases occurred prior to the establishment of current environmental laws via accidental spills and/or commonly accepted waste disposal practices that are no longer acceptable today. The ERP is designed to identify and clean up sites that were impacted by these hazardous substance releases in order to protect human health and the environment and to return valuable land for mission-essential use or community reuse as appropriate.

A selection of resources is summarized below that can support Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) in addressing the types of contaminants found at DON ERP sites.

The Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable (FRTR) also offers a screening matrix for remedial technologies that incorporates selection criteria related to contaminant type.

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) provides a comprehensive list of toxicological profiles for several contaminants as listed in alphabetical order.

Resources

 

Topics

Constituents

Link

Petroleum

 

Light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) including gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, motor oil

 

Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

Benzene (B)

Toluene (T)

Ethylbenzene (E)

Xylene (X)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

NAVFAC Petroleum Web Page

 

NAVFAC LNAPL Site Management Handbook

 

EPA Clu-In MTBE Web Page

 

DoD EnviroWiki PAH Web Page

 

ITRC LNAPL Documents

 

ITRC TPH Risk Document

Chlorinated Solvents

 

Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL)

 

Tetrachloroethene or perchloroethylene (PCE)

Trichloroethylene (TCE)

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

NAVFAC DNAPL Management Overview Handbook

 

NAVFAC Vapor Intrusion Web Page

 

EPA Clu-In DNAPL Web Page

 

EPA Clu-In TCE Web Page

 

DoD EnviroWiki Chlorinated Solvents

 

ITRC Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization

Inorganics

Metals and Metalloids

 

Arsenic

Lead

Chromium

EPA Clu-In Arsenic Web Page

 

EPA Clu-In Chromium Web Page

 

DoD EnviroWiki Metals Metalloid Web Page

 

ITRC Attenuation Processes for Metals and Radionuclides

Persistent Contaminants

 

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

NAVFAC Handbook for Determining the Sources of PCB Contamination in Sediments

 

EPA Clu-In PCB Web Page

Munitions Response

 

Munitions and explosives of concern (MEC)

Munitions constituents (MCs)

 

Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

Cyclonite (RDX)

NAVFAC Munitions Response Web Page

 

NAVFAC Attenuation Pathways for Munitions Constituents in Soils and Groundwater

 

DoD SERDP-ESTCP Munitions Response Web Page

 

DoD SERDP-ESTCP Range Contaminants

 

DoD EnviroWiki Munitions Constituents Web Page

Emerging Contaminants

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)

1,4-dioxane

Perchlorate

Asbestos

Lead

NAVFAC Emerging Contaminants Web Page

Topics

Title and Description

Technology

Screening

Selection 

Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable (FRTR) Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix

A user-friendly tool for screening potentially applicable technologies for a remediation project. Covers in situ and ex situ technologies for soil and groundwater remediation. Variables used in screening include contaminants, development status, overall cost, and cleanup time.

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