Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center





Remediation technologies are available to treat a range of contaminants. These technologies rely upon biological, physical/chemical, thermal, and/or other treatment mechanisms. The technologies can be applied within the subsurface (in situ) or via excavation and treatment (ex situ). Helpful resources on key technologies can be found on this page.    

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The Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable (FRTR) has updated it's Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix. Remediation technologies are available to treat a range of contaminants. These technologies rely upon biological, physical/chemical, thermal, and/or other treatment mechanisms. The Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable (FRTR) provides a user-friendly tool for screening potentially applicable technologies for a remediation project. The recently updated matrix covers 49 in situ and ex situ technologies for soil or groundwater remediation. Variables used in screening include contaminants, development status, overall cost, and cleanup time. In-depth information on each technology is available, including direct links to additional resources.

For Munitions Response (MR) related technologies, see chapters 4-6 in the Munitions Response Remedial Invesitgation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Guidance document.  




Title and Description

Amendment Injection

Amendment Injection Techniques Profile

A wide range of techniques can be applied to introduce and distribute amendments depending on the properties of the amendments that are used as well as site conditions. Injection methods can be active, passive, or a combination of the two.

Anaerobic Oxidation

Anaerobic Oxidation Profile

Anaerobic oxidation is an in situ technology that relies on the introduction of amendments, other than oxygen, that serve as electron acceptors.


In situ Bioreactors Profile

An in situ bioreactor is a form of treatment that relies on biological processes to remediate groundwater.


Biowall Profile

A biowall is a type of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that relies on biological processes to treat groundwater in situ.

Bioremediation - Cometobolic

Bioremediation - Cometobolic Profile

Cometabolic bioremediation breaks down a contaminant utilizing an enzyme or cofactor that is produced by microbes oxidizing or reducing other compounds (metabolites) for energy and carbon.

Dredge Material

Dredged Material Processing Technologies: Dewatering, Separation, Solidification and Ex Situ Treatment Profile

Materials removed by dredging of sediments require transport and may require processing prior to placement in a disposal facility or beneficial reuse site. Dredged material produced during environmental dredging generally requires significant processing prior to disposal or reuse due to the presence of contaminants within the material.



Electrokinetic-Enhanced Remediation Profile

Electrokinetic remediation is the process of applying an electrical current to the subsurface to create movement of ions with the objective of facilitating the removal of contaminants through a variety of processes.

Environmental Dredging

Environmental Dredging Profile

Environmental dredging is the process where contaminated sediment under water is removed, treated, and/or placed in a new location.

EX Situ, Thermal



Ex Situ Thermal Treatment - Desorption and Incineration  Profile

Ex situ thermal treatment, including thermal desorption and incineration, relies on heat to remove contaminants of concern (COCs) from contaminated media, such as soil and sediment. Thermal desorption is a physical process designed to remove contaminants at relatively low temperatures.



Excavation and Off-Site Disposal Profile

Contaminated material can be removed and transported to permitted off-site treatment and/or disposal facilities. This profile focuses on removal of terrestrial media.

Free Product


Free Product Recovery Technologies Profile

Free product recovery consists of several technologies ranging from simple hand bailers and passive skimmer systems to more complex active skimming systems and large-scale total fluids recovery systems.


Pump and Treat

Groundwater Pump and Treat Profile

Contaminated groundwater and/or non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) can be pumped from the subsurface, treated above ground, and discharged.

In Situ,

Activated Carbon

In Situ Activated Carbon Profile

The primary function of AC is to adsorb and immobilize COCs to prevent further horizontal and vertical migration in groundwater within the treatment area,

In Situ

Chemical Reduction

In Situ Chemical Reduction Profile

In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is the in-place abiotic transformation of contaminants by chemical reductants.

In situ


In Situ pH Control Profile

pH control is an in situ technology used to neutralize soil and groundwater having high or low pH.

Landfill Capping

Soil Capping

Landfill and Soil Capping Profile

Landfill and soil capping are containment technologies that form a barrier between a waste body or contamination source area and the ground surface.



MEC Contained Detonation Chamber Profile

Contained detonation chamber (CDC) is a method used to destroy allowable munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) in a closed chamber where technicians can detonate the item.



MEC Screening Profile

Munitions of explosive concern (MEC) screening is a physical and mechanical process that is used in conjunction with soil excavation.



Natural Recovery

Monitored Natural Recovery (MNR) and Enhanced Monitored Natural Recovery (EMNR) Profile

MNR and EMNR are remediation approaches used for contaminated sediments, either alone or in combination with other sediment remediation technologies such as dredging, sediment capping, or sediment capping with amendments.


Natural Attenutation

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) Profile

Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) consists of a range of naturally-occurring in situ physical, chemical, and biological processes that attenuate contaminant concentrations in groundwater to achieve remedial goals within a reasonable timeframe, and protect human health and the environment.



Multi-Phase Extraction (MPE) Profile

Multi-phase extraction (MPE) is a technology designed to simultaneously remove any combination of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), groundwater, and vapor.



Natural Source Zone Depletion (NSZD) Profile

Natural source zone depletion (NSZD) refers to naturally-occurring processes that facilitate attenuation of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL).



Reactive Barriers

Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) Profile

Many types of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are used to passively treat groundwater in situ. PRBs are installed across the flow path of a contaminated groundwater plume such that the plume is intercepted and remediated.

Soil Flushing

Soil Flushing Profile

Soil flushing is an in situ process that extracts contaminants from the formation using water, possibly combined with other suitable amendments such as a surfactant, cosolvent, acid, or base.


Soil Vapor Extraction

Soil Vapor Extraction Profile

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) involves the application of a vacuum in the vadose zone to induce the controlled flow of air and removal of volatile and some semivolatile contaminants from the subsurface.

Soil Washing

Soil Washing Profile

Soil washing is an ex situ process that reduces the volume of contaminated material that must be further treated or disposed.




Solidification and Stabilization Profile

Solidification/stabilization (S/S) transforms potentially hazardous liquid or solid contaminants of concern (COCs) present in soil or sediment into environmentally innocuous materials of considerably reduced mobility, thus preventing the hazardous waste from reaching receptors.


In Situ

Vapor Treatment

Vapor Treatment Technologies Profile

Vapor treatment is accomplished using a variety of technologies that are based on the type of unit operation process employed. A number of in situ remediation technologies including soil vapor extraction (SVE), thermal treatment, in situ combustion, bioventing, and multiphase extraction as well as ex situ technologies such as air stripping,  thermal desorption, incineration, biopiles, generate a vapor stream that may require treatment.

Water Treatment

Water Treatment Technologies Profile

Water treatment is required for many remediation technologies that remove contaminated groundwater from the aquifer during restoration activities. Water treatment is accomplished using a variety of technologies based on treatment processes commonly used by municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities.


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