NWS Yorktown

Cheatham Annex

Environmental Restoration Program Public Website

Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) Sites

Within the Federal Facility Agreement, 10 potentially contaminated Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites and Areas of Concern (AOCs) were identified for evaluation at Cheatham Annex (CAX) and seven sites were identified as requiring no action based on assessments and investigations. Later, two additional AOCs and one Munitions Response Program (MRP) area were identified for evaluation at CAX. Of the 13 IRP sites, AOCs, and MRP areas identified for evaluation, seven IRP sites and AOCs (IRP Sites 4, 7, and 9 and AOCs 1, 6, 8, and 9) and no MRP areas are currently active in the CAX Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). Following desktop audits, site investigations, and/or removal actions, six of the IRP sites, AOCs, and MRP areas have been identified for no further action by the CAX ERP Partnering Team.

Click on a site name within the figures or browse the sections below for site-specific information.

Figure 1 - Active Sites


Figure 2 - No Further Action (NFA) Sites

Active Sites

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 Site 4 - Outdated Medical Supply Disposal Area

Site 4 includes the areas formerly known as AOC 3. In the late 1960s, out-of-date, unused medical supplies, including syringes, empty intravenous bottles, and one-inch metal banding, were unloaded down a bank in this area and covered with soil. Railroad ties and concrete debris were also dumped along the main drainage channel to Upstream Pond. In addition, test pitting activities in 2009 revealed the presence of buried asphalt, bricks, concrete, metal, construction and wood debris, automotive parts, dark tar paper, shingles, and a 55-gallon drum in the former AOC 3 area. For more information on Environmental History for this site, see the Site Management Plan.

 Site 7 - Old DuPont Disposal Area

During the early 1900s, it was reported that non-hazardous and/or inert wastes from the City Penniman and the DuPont Company Penniman facility were disposed along the York River. Site 7 is located along the York River east of Chase Road, and is transected by Davis Road. For more information on Environmental History for this site, see the Site Management Plan.

 Site 9 - Transformer Storage Area

Site 9, a former transformer storage area, was originally identified as a 7,000 square feet area adjacent to the northwest corner of CAD 16. However, a closer look at soil waste characterization sample results for an intended, but canceled, MILCON project between CADs 6 and 16, and a subsequent interview with a long-term CAX employee, revealed the actual transformer storage area was located adjacent to the northwest corner of CAD 6. It appears as though transformers and electronic components were brought on-site, crushed, and loaded onto rail cars for disposal. For more information on Environmental History for this site, see the Site Management Plan.

 AOC 1 - Scrap Metal Dump

AOC 1 is a former debris disposal area located just west of Chapman Road within two ravines associated with unnamed tributaries to Jones Mill Pond. Wood and metal debris outcrop from the banks of the ravines, with debris being more extensive within the southern ravine. For more information on Environmental History for this site, see the Site Management Plan.

 AOC 6 - Penniman AOC

AOC 6 consists of five sub-areas related to the former Penniman Shell Loading Plant. The Penniman Shell Loading Plant was an explosives manufacturing facility operated by the DuPont de Nemours Company during World War I on what is now CAX and adjacent properties. The five AOC 6 sub-areas were identified through aerial photographic analysis as follows:

  • Ammonia Settling Pits

  • TNT Graining House Sump

  • TNT Catch Box Ruins

  • Waste Slag Material

  • 1918 Drum Storage

For more information on Environmental History for this site, see the Site Management Plan.

 AOC 8 - Area South of Site 7

AOC 8 is a very small area along the perimeter of the York River. Buried debris (pipe, metal, and wood) can be seen cropping out from the edge of the slope and along the beach. Test pits conducted in 1999 indicate that the waste post-dates World War I and does not appear to be associated with DuPont Penniman facility waste disposal. For more information on Environmental History for this site, see the Site Management Plan.

 AOC 9 - Penniman Lake

Penniman Lake is a 48-acre surface water body located in the southeastern portion of CAX that was created in 1943 when a portion of King Creek was dammed. For more information on the Environmental History for this site, see the Site Management Plan.

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No Action / No Further Action (NFA) Sites

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 Site 1 – Landfill Near Incinerator

Site 1 was used for burning residues between 1942 and 1951, and as a general landfill between 1951 and 1981. Site 1 (which includes AOC 5) covers approximately 2 acres and is located along the York River behind a former incinerator that was dismantled sometime between 1989 and 1992. An unnamed tributary and associated wetland that discharge into the York River border the northwest edge of the landfill. A variety of wastes, including empty paint cans and paint thinner cans, cartons of ether and other unspecified drugs, railroad ties, tar paper, sawdust, rags, concrete, and lumber, were burned and disposed in the landfill until disposal activities ceased in 1981. During its operation, an estimated 34,500 tons of solid waste were buried at the landfill. The landfill at Site 1 occupied approximately 1 acre of the 2 acre site. There was an additional northern area of impacted soils that occupied approximately three tenths of an acre. This area contained cables, metal storage containers, an empty storage tank, automobiles, airplane and boat parts, and other miscellaneous items and was initially designated as AOC 5-Debris Area. AOC 5 was later determined to be part of Site 1.

The edges of the landfill, along the wetland and the York River, were historically steep (approximately 20 ft high, nearly vertical in areas) and lacking in vegetation. Landfill contents (including metal scrap, wood, drums, containers, and other miscellaneous debris) were exposed along this perimeter. Continued erosion of bluff slopes caused by flooding and wave action may have caused exposure and migration of contaminated soil and debris to the adjacent wetland area. In 2000, Geotubes™ were installed to temporarily stabilize the toe of the bank of the erosion area. In 2003, two breakwaters were constructed along the shore of Site 1 to reduce the amount of erosion caused by wave action from the York River.

Four removal actions (Removal Action A through D) conducted in 2003, 2004, and 2005 eliminated all landfill waste and associated soil from the site. Following the 2003 removal action, an area of sediment below the water table, or a “depression pool,” was left in place east of the unnamed tributary that borders the northwest edge of the former landfill. A fifth removal action (Removal Action E) conducted in 2007 excavated sediment contaminated with PAHs, metals, and pesticides from the depression pool and sediment with elevated PCBs in the marsh adjacent to the depression pool. In addition, during Removal Action E, a riparian buffer was constructed adjacent to the depression pool to reduce erosion of the bank. Following the removal actions, no potentially unacceptable risks to human health or the environment remained at the site and a no further action ROD was signed in September 2009.

 Site 2 – Contaminated Food Disposal Area

Site 2 was a contaminated food disposal area located within the woods behind Building 40 (Cold Storage Warehouse) which was razed in 2005. In 1970, food was contaminated with ammonia following a leak in one of the cold storage rooms. As a result, approximately 100 cubic yards of ammonia-contaminated food was buried with cellophane wrappers and boxes intact in a disposal pit approximately 50 feet in diameter and 12 to 15 feet deep. Site 2 was exclusively used for disposal of this contaminated food.

The IAS concluded that additional study was not warranted for the site due to the decomposable nature of the wastes buried at the site. The Navy, USEPA, and VDEQ agreed on June 18, 2003 to include Site 2 as part of a multi-site No Further Remedial Action Planned (NFRAP) decision document. The multi-site NFRAP was signed in August 2003.

 Site 3 – Submarine Dye Disposal Area

Site 3 was used for the storage of 55-gallon drums of fluorescein dye. Site 3 is located at the southeastern corner of CAD 15 and is presently used as a storage lot. The fluorescein dye was stored in 55-gallon drums on two or three pallets located between the warehouses. Drum corrosion allowed dye to leak onto the ground and into the storm sewer system. On rainy days, puddles containing a green fluorescent dye were observed; at times, the dye would leak into the storm sewer leading to the York River. The drums were removed in the early 1970s. The fluorescein dye is non-hazardous, does not adversely impact environmental media, and naturally degrades.

Because the drums were removed and there is a lack of environmental hazard, no additional investigation was warranted for Site 3. The Navy, USEPA and VDEQ agreed on June 18, 2003 to include Site 3 as part of a multi-site No Further Remedial Action Planned (NFRAP) decision document. The multi-site NFRAP was signed in August 2003.

 Site 5 – Photographic Chemicals Disposal Area

Site 5 was originally a marl borrow pit located east of Second Street and south of Antrim Road. Site 5 drains to Penniman Lake and is adjacent to Site 11 (Bone Yard). Site 5 was used for the disposal of approximately 20 to 40 gallons of outdated photographic developers and fixers in 1967 or 1968. The material was reportedly disposed in a pit of unknown dimensions.

Based on the small quantity and the non-hazardous nature of the chemicals disposed, the IAS concluded that further study was not warranted at Site 5. The Navy, USEPA, and VDEQ agreed in December 2001 that Site 5 warranted no further action and was included as part of a multi-site No Further Remedial Action Planned (NFRAP) decision document. The multi-site NFRAP was signed in August 2003.

 Site 6 – Spoiled Food Disposal Area

Site 6 is located southwest of First Street in a vegetated area between First Street and the Patrol Road. Site 6 was used as spoiled food disposal area for approximately 750 cubic yards of food spoiled in cold storage. The food was buried in a 12 to 15 foot deep pit around 1970.

The IAS concluded that additional study was not warranted for the site because of the nonhazardous nature of the spoiled food buried at the site. The Navy, USEPA, and VDEQ agreed on June 18, 2003 to include Site 6 as part of a multi-site No Further Remedial Action Planned (NFRAP) decision document. The multi-site NFRAP was signed in August 2003.

 Site 8 – Landfill Near Building CAD 14

Site 8 is located approximately 300 feet north of Building CAD 14 and is estimated to be less than 0.25 acres. The disposal area reportedly consisted of a series of trenches 2,000 feet long and 10 feet deep. The site was used at various times since the early 1940s, but was most active before the Site 1 Landfill (near the incinerator) was opened. Waste was reportedly disposed at the site as recently as 1980.

Specific information documenting disposal practices is not available. Reportedly, only nonhazardous materials such as spoiled meat, spoiled candy, and clothing have been disposed at the site. The surface of the site is level and overgrown with tall grasses, and, at the time of the IAS, there was no surface evidence of waste and no stressed vegetation.

Based on the inert nature of the materials disposed of at Site 8 and observations made during the site visit, the site retained its status as not warranting further investigation. The Navy, USEPA, and VDEQ agreed to include Site 8 as part of a multi-site No Further Remedial Action Planned (NFRAP) decision document. The multi-site NFRAP was signed in August 2003.

 Site 10 – Decontaminated Agent Disposal Area Near First Street

Site 10 covers a one-acre area located south of First Street. An estimated 75 to 100 gallons of decontamination agent (DS-2) were reportedly buried at the site before 1982. DS-2 was used for decontaminating equipment contaminated with nerve or blister agents and is a known human toxin with corrosive properties. It is not known if the DS-2 at Site 10 was neutralized prior to disposal.

Based on the site history, material disposed, and results of a Site Investigation, which included soil and groundwater sampling, the Navy, EPA, and VDEQ agreed to include Site 10 as part of a multi-site No Further Remedial Action Planned (NFRAP) as the low levels of contamination did not appear to be related to DS-2 and were not suspected to be indicative of a significant source of contamination. The multi-site NFRAP was signed in August 2003.

 Site 11 – Bone Yard

The IAS identified Site 11 as an eight-acre area located 250 ft. south of Antrim Road and the Public Works facility. Documentation in later reports, following the removal of stored material, identified the site being 2.7 acres in size. Between 1940 and 1978, Site 11 was used to store containers of waste-oil, tar, asphalt, and other scrap materials. Oil, asphalt, gasoline, as well as scrap metal, old storage and mixing containers (e.g., fuel oil tanks), fence posts, and abandoned cars have been found at Site 11. Various discarded clamshell buckets and other surplus metal objects used in heavy construction were also located throughout the area. Approximately ten five-gallon containers labeled “paraplastic” (concrete sealant) were also present at one time. South of the entrance, numerous barrels containing petroleum products were discovered, as well as several 500-gallon square tanks containing asphalt or oil used in making asphalt. The site is wooded and slopes slightly east toward Penniman Lake. Two small drainage ditches border the site to the north and south and flow east toward Penniman Lake.

In 1987, 18 drums were removed from the site for disposal. In 1997, 59 drums, two empty storage tanks, two tar storage boxes and miscellaneous surface debris were removed for offsite disposal. Confirmation soil samples collected from the site demonstrated that contamination remained in the soil. An additional removal action was conducted at the site in 2009. Following the additional removal action, no potentially unacceptable risks to human health or the environment remained at the site due to exposure to any site media (soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediment) and a no further action ROD was signed in September 2010.

 Site 12 - Disposal Site Near Water Tower

Site 12 is located between Patrol Road and railroad tracks (approximately 2,000 feet west of Jones Pond). It was used for surface disposal of scrap metal, primarily old automobile parts, and iron pipe. Based on visual inspection of the site, approximately 70 to 110 cubic feet of material was disposed. Non-hazardous materials are believed to have been disposed of at the site and no signs of stressed vegetation were noted at the time of the IAS in 1984.

A limited field investigation consisting of eight surface and eight subsurface soil samples was conducted at Site 12 in June 2002. The data was incorporated into a Source Release Investigation (SRI). The SRI concluded that chemicals detected within Site 12 soil media are either consistent with concentrations found in reference conditions or are below benchmark concentrations protective of human health and terrestrial ecological receptors.

A No Further Remedial Action Planned decision document was signed in April 2004.

 AOC 2 – Dextrose Dump

AOC 2 was identified during site visits by the Navy, USEPA, and VDEQ in late 1997 and early 1998. The area is located in the woods north of Garrison Road, along the southern perimeter of CAX. Historical information indicates that AOC 2 was an unlined, non-permitted disposal area with unknown dates of debris disposal. In the eastern portion of the site are several rows of concrete foundation piers that at one time supported a shipping house associated with the former Penniman Shell Loading Plant. Partially buried glass intravenous (IV) bottles (labeled “dextrose”), unlabeled empty 55-gallon drums, respirator cartridges, and surplus military clothing were discovered in the area; deer carcasses were also noted. Based on the types of debris observed during test trenching activities, the site was separated into four areas: Areas 1a and 1b (surplus dextrose IV bottles), Area 2 (unused respirator cartridges and empty 55-gallon drums), and Area 3 (surplus military clothing). The CAX Partnering Team agreed the nature of the debris in Areas 1a, 1b, and 3 (dextrose IV bottles and military clothing) is not a concern or a source regulated under CERCLA. Area 2 was identified for a removal action.

In May 2016, a removal action for Area 2 was completed. Debris of concern under CERCLA (respirator cartridges and drums) were removed from the site. A Technical Memorandum documenting the Navy, USEPA, VDEQ agreement that no further action was required at AOC 2 was signed in May 2017.

 AOC 3 – CAD 11/12 Pond Bank

AOC 3 was designated as an AOC in 1998 following site visits by Navy, USEPA, and VDEQ. It is situated between Buildings CAD 11 and CAD 12 and west of D Street, along the north bank of Upstream Pond near Site 4. Initially, it was believed to contain an approximately 20 ft. by 20 ft. by 10 ft. high pile of metal banding and a few empty drums and pieces of charred wood.

However, test pits revealed buried debris at the site, including asphalt, bricks, concrete, metal, construction and wood debris, automotive parts, dark tar paper, shingles, and a 55-gallon drum. Due to the close proximity to Site 4 the Navy, USEPA and VDEQ agreed that Site 4 and AOC 3 should be managed as one unit and AOC 3 was incorporated into Site 4. Consequently, AOC 3 is closed and is addressed as Site 4.

 AOC 4 – Outdated Medical Supply Disposal Area

During 1998, AOC 4 was identified as a new AOC, however, based on review of site history and available information, it was determined to be the same area as Site 4. Therefore, AOC 4 is closed and addressed as Site 4.

 AOC 5 – Debris Area

A large pile of debris that existed at the toe of the Site 1 landfill was identified as AOC 5 in 1998. It contained cables, conex boxes, an empty storage tank, automobiles, airplane/boat parts, and other miscellaneous items. Based on the results of the 1998 field investigation (Baker, 1999), that included a geophysical survey and soil and sediment sampling in the vicinity of the pile, the Navy, USEPA and VDEQ agreed Site 1 and AOC 5 should be managed as one unit and AOC 5 was incorporated into Site 1. Consequently, AOC 5 is closed and is addressed as Site 1.

 AOC 7 – Drum Disposal Area and Can Pit

In April 2004, the Navy identified a potential area of concern north of Building 14 and Site 8. The area of concern consisted of two small surface debris disposal areas, labeled as a “Can Pit” and a “Drum Disposal Area.” The Can Pit was an excavated ground depression approximately 30 ft. by 20 ft. and 4 ft. deep that contained 5-gallon rusted cans with labeling containing the word “tetrachloroethene.” The Drum Disposal Area contained several rusted and empty pails and 55-gallon drums scattered about the surface.

Surface debris was removed from the “Can Pit” in 2006 and subsurface debris was removed in 2015. In addition, soil posing potential risk to human health was removed from the site in 2015. Following these removal action activities, and the fact that no potential human health or ecological risks due to exposure to groundwater were identified, the Navy, USEPA, and VDEQ agreed no further action was required for the site.

 UXO 1- Marine Pistol and Rifle Range

The other-than-operational Marine Pistol and Rifle Range is approximately 7 acres in the northwest portion of CAX. The range was used from 1939 to 1970, exclusively for small-caliber munitions (less than 0.5 caliber rounds). A Preliminary Assessment was conducted for the range. The PA identified that only small arms were used, thus there is no potential for MEC at the range. Old targets and a wooden backstop were observed at the range in 2004. No further action was required following the completion of an Expanded Site Inspection completed in 2008.

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