Site 1

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Site 1 - Golf Course Landfill

Historical Use

The western half of Site 1 was historically occupied by an approximately 49-acre landfill that operated between 1942 and 1967. Waste was contained in the landfill by burning in trenches and installing a low-permeability soil cover. A dragline was used for excavation of the trenches which were 8 feet wide and extended to at least the top of the water table (approximately 6 to 8 feet deep). General refuse, trash, and free liquid oil were deposited directly into trenches which occasionally had several feet of standing water at their base. Skokie Ditch Open Channel and Skokie Ditch Pipe were located within the landfill footprint.

Between 1953 and 1955, the front 9-hole portion of the golf course was constructed east of the landfill. The clubhouse, Building 3312, and the parking lot were constructed in 1963. When the landfill was closed in 1967, a 0.5-foot layer of coal ash and a layer of soil with a minimum thickness of approximately 2 feet and an average thickness of approximately 6.5 feet were placed over the landfill. The back 9-hole portion of the golf course was constructed over the former landfill in 1968.

In 2003, sink holes occurred within the limits of Site 1. These sink holes were attributed to the collapse of the over 50-year old underground storm sewer pipe that conveyed the Skokie Ditch beneath Site 1. The clubhouse was demolished in 2007 and replaced in 2008.

Currently, Site 1 is located entirely within the limits of the 18-hole Willow Glen Golf Course. The golf course is owned and operated by the Navy and used by facility personnel and people from the surrounding area. Properties immediately adjacent to the site boundaries are generally commercial, industrial, or open space. Residential properties are located within 0.125 miles to the north, east, south, and west of the site boundary. The future use of the surrounding land and of Site 1 as a golf course is not expected to change.

The primary source of soil, sediment, groundwater and surface water contamination at Site 1 is assumed to be the former landfill activities. The landfill received approximately 1.5 million tons of waste while it was in operation as a trench/burn facility from 1942 to 1967. The volume of waste was reduced through burning, and the remaining waste is estimated to be approximately 500,000 tons. Reportedly, the waste included mostly domestic refuse; however, it also included sewage, sludge, petroleum, oil and lubricants, solvents, coal ash, and materials contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Remedial Actions

A soil cover installed over the waste on top of the landfill prevents humans and animals from coming into direct contact with the waste, and the plugging of former storm water conveyance pipes under the landfill prevents migration of residual contaminants. Access to the site is not limited by a perimeter fence around the site; however, land use controls (LUCs) were implemented in 2011 to restrict future use of the site, prohibit installation of groundwater wells other than for environmental sampling, and require annual inspections of the site to make sure LUCs are continuing to be implemented. Groundwater monitoring wells were installed in their current configuration around the perimeter of the landfill. Groundwater monitoring is being conducted at the site.

Previous Investigations

Previous investigations, plans and documentation at this site are: IAS; RI/RA; FS; PP; and a ROD.

Current Status

LUCs have been implemented and Long-term Groundwater Monitoring is being conducted.

Site 1 Map


1322 Patterson Ave. SE, Suite 1000, Washington Navy Yard, D.C. 20374-5065

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