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Site Descriptions

PFAS Background Information

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are compounds with heat resistant properties that were used in some formulations of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) used for firefighting operations at military installations, including Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field (NALF) Fentress, and Dam Neck Annex. Two of these compounds, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were present in AFFF used by the Navy from the 1960s through the 1980s. While PFAS-containing foam was sprayed on the ground during equipment testing and training operations in the past, AFFF containing PFOS and PFOA is no longer used at NAS Oceana, NALF Fentress, or Dam Neck Annex, and the AFFF currently in use is for emergency operations only. PFAS are classified as unregulated or “emerging” contaminants, which have no Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) regulatory standards. However, unenforceable provisional health advisories for PFOA (0.4 parts per billion [ppb]) and PFOS (0.2 ppb) were issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in January 2009. On May 19, 2016, USEPA established an unenforceable lifetime health advisory of 70 parts per trillion for the individual or cumulative concentration of PFOA and PFOS.

NAS Oceana

Table 2 includes all sites at Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana that are currently active. Click on a site name within Figure 2 for further information.

 

Table 2: Active SWMUs at NAS Oceana

Site/SWMU ID

Former Site/SWMU ID

2A

Line Shack Disposal Area, Building 500

Site 2/SWMU 51

2B

Line Shacks 130-131

Site 2/SWMU 51

2C

Line Shack 400

Site 2/SWMU 52

2E

Line Shack 109, Building 23

Site 2/SWMUs 1 and 54

3

West Side Landfill

SWMU 29

6

Navy Exchange Maintenance Building Waste Oil Disposal Area, Building 518

--

7

Fifth Green Landfill

SWMU 24

8

North Station Landfill

SWMU 26

11

Firefighting Training Ring

SWMU 11/62 & 63

22

Construction Debris Landfill

SWMU 22

26

Firefighting Burn Pit, Building 220

SWMU 65

66

Former Firefighting Training Tank (located within SWMU 11 boundary)

SWMU 66

100

Oceana Salvage Yard Access Road and Burial Unit

--

UXO 5

NAS Oceana Machine Gun Boresight Range

--

--

Other PFAS Source Areas

--

--

Oceana Pond

--

--

Locomotive Service Building, Former Building 606

--

--

Former Wastewater Treatment Plant

--

--

Area North of Hazardous Waste Storage

--

     
Figure2_NAS_Oceana_Map

Line Shack Disposal Area, Building 500 (SWMU 2A)

SWMU 2A was used historically for aircraft maintenance and cleaning, and is located along the flight line at NAS Oceana in the vicinity of Building 500. Naval personnel disposed of various maintenance and cleaning chemicals onto the ground at the SWMUs. The chemicals contained organic contaminants, including trichloroethene (TCE). Additionally, at SWMU 2E, a waste oil bowser was used to contain waste cleaning chemicals and oils. The oil bowser reportedly leaked, which resulted in a release of the chemicals to the environment. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Line Shack Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs 2B, 2C, and 2E)

SWMUs 2B, 2C, and 2E, the Line Shack SWMUs, were used historically for aircraft maintenance and cleaning, and are located along the flight line at NAS Oceana. Naval personnel disposed of various maintenance and cleaning chemicals onto the ground at the SWMUs. The chemicals contained organic contaminants, including trichloroethene (TCE). Additionally, at SWMU 2E, a waste oil bowser was used to contain waste cleaning chemicals and oils. The oil bowser reportedly leaked, which resulted in a release of the chemicals to the environment.

SWMUs 2B, 2C, and 2E have been investigated since 1986. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

West Side Landfill (SWMU 3)

West Side Landfill, SWMU 3, was a 6 acre landfill that was operated from 1941 to 1945. Wastes disposed of in the landfill reportedly include construction debris, municipal wastes, and unknown debris. The quantity of chemicals disposed at the landfill was estimated to be roughly 60 pounds of asbestos, 400 gallons of paints and thinners, and 24 pounds of pesticide residues. Historical and planned environmental restoration activities for the SWMU are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Fifth Green Landfill (SWMU 7)

Fifth Green Landfill, SWMU 7, was identified as an unlined, 4 acre landfill that was operated from 1954 to 1961. Wastes disposed of in the landfill reportedly include asbestos, solvents, pesticides, transformers, municipal wastes, photofinishing wastes, and construction debris. Wastes were burned prior to disposal at the site. Fifth Green Landfill is located in the southeast portion of NAS Oceana on the current golf course. SWMU 7 is currently maintained as approximately 3 acres of the local golf course for use by military personnel, their guests, and dependents. The golf course was built in 1948, but initially was not placed on top of Fifth Green Landfill. Between 1982 and 2003, the golf course was expanded and now covers the Fifth Green Landfill. Historical and planned environmental restoration activities for the SWMU are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

North Station Landfill (SWMU 8)

North Station Landfill, SWMU 8, is located in the eastern portion of NAS Oceana. The site was reported to be a 4-acre site located east of the old airfield. The site was used in the early 1950s to 1954 and appeared to be an unlined borrow pit that was allowed to fill with water. During the operating period, it is believed that the landfill received all solid wastes generated at the facility. The solid waste likely included solvents, pesticides, construction debris, municipal wastes, electrical conductors, transformers, sanitary waste, photo-laboratory waste, and nonhazardous waste. Historical and planned environmental restoration activities for the SWMU are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Construction Debris Landfill (SWMU 22)

Construction Debris Landfill, SWMU 22, is located in the northeastern portion of NAS Oceana. The site is an approximately 0.55-acre unlined landfill. The years of operation are unknown, but the site was discovered in 1986 and was still in use in 1988 when it was identified as a location with potential to pose risks to human health and/or the environment. The landfill was designated for construction debris; however, no controls were in place to prevent other waste from being disposed. Based on observations made in 1988, the waste disposed of at SWMU 22 included construction debris, furniture, empty paint cans, tires, and scrap metal. Historical and planned environmental restoration activities for the SWMU are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Basewide Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) Investigation

A Basewide Site Inspection (SI) for PFAS was initiated at NAS Oceana in 2016. The investigation objectives were to determine whether PFAS are present in groundwater in likely source areas on Base (including Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 11, SWMU 26, known crash locations, and known accidental release locations) and to determine the potential for offsite migration of PFAS contamination.

In December 2016, a public information session was held to notify nearby residents of potential PFAS contamination, and to coordinate sampling of private drinking water wells within a 1-mile radius of monitoring wells with PFOS/PFOA exceedances of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) lifetime health advisory. The Basewide SI, including off-base sampling of private potable wells, was completed in 2017. PFOS and/or PFOA were detected at one property but the concentration was below the lifetime health advisory. PFOS and/or PFOA were not detected at any of the other off-base properties. Additional Basewide investigations for PFAS will be conducted to better understand the extent of PFAS contamination. Additional information is provided in the Project Management Plan.

Machine Gun Boresight Range

The former Machine Gun Boresight Range covers approximately 1.7 acres in the northern portion of NAS Oceana. The site initially was used as a maintenance and testing range for aircraft-mounted machine guns and was later converted to a small-arms firing range. Ammunition was likely limited to .50- and .30-caliber rounds for aircraft guns and small-arms ammunition. Historical investigations and ongoing and planned investigation and restoration activities at the Machine Gun Boresight Range are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Oceana Salvage Yard Access Road and Burial Unit (SWMU 100)

The Oceana Salvage Yard is a privately-owned business located east of NAS Oceana, across Oceana Boulevard. The only access to the site is a road on NAS Oceana property. The Salvage Yard historically disposed of waste, including crushed car batteries, within the road, and also on the sides and shoulders of the road on Navy property. Consequently, the Navy has taken steps to both investigate and remediate contamination from the Salvage Yard present within the boundary of NAS Oceana. Historical investigations and planned environmental restoration activities at the Oceana Salvage Yard Access Road and Burial Unit are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Oceana Pond

In 1986, the Navy acquired a parcel of land, which includes Oceana Pond, through a land swap agreement. The parcel, which is now a recreational area for civilians and Base personnel, is located east of Oceana Boulevard outside the secure area of the Base. In 2012, Navy personnel identified areas of buried debris near Oceana Pond. Based on a historical aerial photograph analysis, it is believed that an area north of Oceana Pond was used as a borrow pit until it was backfilled prior to 1986. It is unknown what material was used as backfill. Historical and planned environmental restoration activities for Oceana Pond are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Navy Exchange Maintenance Building Waste Oil Disposal Area, Building 518 (Site 6)

Site 6 includes a strip of ground approximately 25 feet long adjacent to a fence outside of the Building 518, the Naval Exchange Maintenance Building. The Navy Exchange maintenance operations were based in Building 518 as early as the late 1950s. Maintenance operations included minor repairs (e.g., wire splicing, bulb changing, etc.), air conditioning/refrigeration recharging and repair, and minor painting and carpentry. Less than 15 gallons of waste oil per year were reportedly dumped at Site 6 during the 1970s for approximately 10 years. The waste oil was generated from vehicle maintenance activities. After 1982, waste oil was collected by Public Works for disposal. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Locomotive Service Building, Former Building 606

Based on historical aerial photographs, Building 606 appears to have been active from the mid-1950s to 1990s. It appears to have been demolished as of 2015 and used for storage of Conex boxes since 2016 according to aerial photographic analysis. The former Locomotive Shop, also known as the Locomotive Service Building, is referred to as the Railroad Equipment Shop in the 1986 NAS Oceana Master Plan. No additional information is known about the use of this building. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Former Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP)

The WWTP was put in operation in 1951 and prior to that, another plant was operated approximately 1,500 feet northeast of the WWTP. In the mid-1970s, NAS Oceana was connected to the Hampton Roads Sanitation District regional collection system; however, prior to that time all sanitary and industrial wastewater was treated at the on-Base plant. The effluent from the WWTP was discharged to a ditch running to the west of NAS Oceana. Sludge from the WWTP was either applied to land on the western edge of the Base, given away as fertilizer, or disposed of in landfills. The inactive WWTP was demolished in 1983-1984. The contents of the anaerobic digester (SWMU 84) that was used at the WWTP were disposed of at the sanitary landfill on the Base sometime shortly after February 1985. These contents included 75,000 gallons of digester water and 350 cubic yards of sludge. The former location of the WWTP is currently a swampy area with some vegetation. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

Area North of Hazardous Waste Storage

The Hazardous Waste Storage Area is located in the southwestern portion of NAS Oceana, west of Hornet Drive. The area north of the hazardous waste storage area, also referred to as the Debris Pile, consists of a large debris pile containing disassembled railroad tracks. The debris is mostly metallic and wood and contains steel matting. It is believed that the Debris Pile was started in the 1990s. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Project Management Plan.

NALF Fentress

Table 3 includes all sites at Naval Auxiliary Landing Field (NALF) Fentress that are currently active. Click on a site name within Figure 3 for further information.

Table 3: Active SWMUs at NALF Fentress

Site/SWMU ID Former Site/SWMU ID

14

Fentress Landfill

SWMU 23

17

Firefighting Training Area (Fentress Burn Pit)

SWMU 64

--

Underground Storage Tank (UST) 20B

--

--

Other PFAS Source Areas

--

UXO 9

NALF Fentress Dive Bombing Targets

--

UXO 10

NALF Fentress Machine Gun Boresight Range

--

--

NALF Fentress Magazine Storage Area

--

 

Figure3_NALF_Fentress_Map


Fentress Landfill (Site 14)

The Fentress Landfill occupies 3 acres of land directly north of the northeast end of the principal runway at NALF Fentress. Wastes reportedly disposed at this landfill include asbestos, solvents, oils, pesticide residue, and transformers containing an unknown quantity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The landfill was reportedly used from 1945 to 1970. The Navy initiated investigations at the Fentress Landfill in 1991. Historical investigations and ongoing and planned environmental restoration activities at Site 14 are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Firefighting Training Ring (Site 17)

Site 17 includes the NALF Fentress firefighting training ring and its immediate surroundings. The site is located at the intersection of two abandoned runways in the northwestern corner of the base. Prior to 1991, the ring was an active firefighting training area where jet fuel was ignited and extinguished. During these activities, mixtures of firefighting agents, water, and residual fuel were generated. The Navy initiated investigations at Site 17 in 1991. Historical and planned environmental restoration activities at Site 17 are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Underground Storage Tank (UST) 20B

UST 20B consisted of a 1,000-gallon steel tank for storing gasoline that was located in front of Building 20 at NALF Fentress. UST 20B initially was investigated in 1992 after a gasoline release was reported to the State Water Control Board. Historical and planned environmental restoration activities at the UST 20B site are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Basewide PFAS Investigation

A Basewide Site Inspection (SI) for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was initiated at NALF Fentress in 2015. The investigation objectives were to determine whether PFAS are present in groundwater in likely source areas on Base and to determine the potential for offsite migration of PFAS contamination. Evaluated source areas included Site 14 and Site 17, crash truck test areas, and crash sites where firefighting foam was used. Additionally, the investigation approach included sampling of the base drinking water and wastewater and sampling of 52 private drinking water wells on 49 properties with the consent of the property owners. A summary of previous and planned environmental investigation and restoration activities is provided in the Site Management Plan.

Dive Bombing Targets

Two adjacent dive bombing targets (DBTs) dating from 1955 are located northwest of the runway in a currently forested and undeveloped area at NALF Fentress. Each target is approximately 6.5 acres in size. Probable munitions used at the DBTs include practice bombs, as well as MK4 signal cartridges, spotting/witness charges, and bomb signal cartridges. Historical and planned investigation and restoration activities are included in the Site Management Plan.

Former Machine Gun Boresight Range

The former Machine Gun Boresight Range (MGBR) at NALF Fentress encompasses about 1 acre and lies in the northern portion of NALF Fentress. The site was used initially as a maintenance and testing range for aircraft-mounted machine guns, but later was converted to a pistol range. Ammunition used at the former MGBR likely was limited to .50 and .30-caliber rounds for aircraft guns. Historical, ongoing, and planned investigation and restoration activities at the Machine Gun Boresight Range are included in the Site Management Plan.

Magazine Storage Area

The Magazine Storage Area was identified during review of historical aerial photographs. The Magazine Storage Area consists of five ammunition and explosive storage magazines (Buildings 73-77) and one inert material storage building (Building 78). Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Dam Neck Annex

Table 4 includes all sites at Dam Neck Annex that are currently active. Click on a site name within Figure 4 for further information.

Table 4: Active SWMUs at Dam Neck Annex

Site ID Former Site/SWMU ID

1

Regulus Avenue Landfill

Site 1

3

Drone Repair Shop

Site 3

4

Regulus Avenue Metal Scrapyard

Site 4

5

Public Works Disposal Area

Site 5

--

Fire Station

--

--

Basewide PFAS

--

--

Former Wastewater Treatment Plant

--

--

Former Dry Cleaning Facility

--

UXO 6

Dam Neck Annex Mortar Impact Area

--

UXO 7

Dam Neck Annex Moving Target/Mortar Range (South)

--

UXO 8

Dam Neck Annex Skeet and Trap Range

--

UXO 13

Dam Neck Annex Moving Target/Mortar Range (North)

--

--

Lake Tecumseh

--

Potential MRP Sites*

--

Land Buffer Parcel

--

--

Potential Offshore Rockets

--

*Potential MRP sites are currently being evaluated in a Preliminary Assessment. Based on the results, a Site Inspection may be recommended.
 

Figure4_DamNeck_Map


Regulus Avenue Landfill (Site 1)

Site 1, the Regulus Avenue Landfill, is an inactive, unlined landfill located on 10 acres in the southern portion of Dam Neck Annex. The landfill site was in operation from 1953 to 1976, and received 3 to 17 tons per day of solid waste from Dam Neck Annex. Historical records indicate that wastes disposed in the landfill consisted of municipal waste, pesticides, asbestos, construction debris, lime, paints, petroleum products, alcohols, sewage sludge, ordnance, and hazardous wastes. Wastes disposed at the landfill were burned or buried. There is possibility that drums containing aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which was used for firefighting, were disposed in the landfill. When the landfill was closed in 1976, a layer of clean fill, with an average thickness of 4 feet, was placed over the debris. Historical and planned investigation and restoration activities at Site 1 are included in the Site Management Plan.

Drone Repair Shop (Site 3)

The Drone Repair Shop operated from 1942 until the building was demolished in 1972 and repaired drones, resulting in the generation of petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL). A subsurface tank possibly connected to a leach field located north of the shop was used for disposal of waste POL. An estimated 460 gallons of POL may have been discharged if 10 percent of the waste POL generated by the Drone Repair Shop were disposed of through the leach field. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Regulus Avenue Metal Scrapyard (Site 4)

Site 4 was used primarily as a scrapyard for the disposal of lumber, metal, solvents, paints, and sulfuric acid lead batteries from 1978 to 1981 and continued to unofficially receive waste until 1984. Most liquid wastes were probably residues remaining in empty or unused cans. The IAS estimated approximately 20 gallons of paints and solvents were discharged over a 4-year period. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Public Works Disposal Area (Site 5)

Site 5 consisted of wastes from the metal shop, including cutting oils, solvents, lead carbonate cutting oil lubricant, paint thinner, and motor oil, that were poured on the ground behind the Public Works area. Disposal activities were reported from 1954 to 1979. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Fire House (Building 525)

The Fire House (Building 525) was constructed in 1956 and is located north of Lake Tecumseh. Building 525 was identified as a potential per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) source area due to firefighting training activities that were reported to have occurred on the concrete pad south of the building. According to previous reports, approximately 30 gallons of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) were used annually and washed off the concrete pad into the grass. Building 525 has not been previously investigated, and was opened as a new site in 2017. Planned investigation and restoration activities at Building 525 are included in the Site Management Plan.

Basewide PFAS Investigation

In response to a NAVFAC Headquarters directive, a Source Area Assessment for PFAS at Dam Neck Annex is being conducted to identify additional potential releases and is anticipated to be finalized in FY 2020. The Source Area Assessment will identify additional potential source areas that are not already under investigation at Dam Neck Annex. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Former WWTP

The Former WWTP operated from 1954 to 1976 and was located on the southern end or Tartar Avenue and surround on three sides by Lake Tecumseh. This plant had a normal operating capacity of 432,000 gallons per day. Sludge from the plant was dried in beds located adjacent to the treatment plant, where the majority of the sludge was also disposed of. Both treatment facilities discharged into Lake Tecumseh and operated under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Former Dry Cleaning Facility

A planned laundry facility was shown on the 1969 General Development Map. No additional information is known about the use of this facility. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Mortar Impact Area

The Mortar Impact Area is located in the southeastern portion of Dam Neck Annex, and was identified on an archival map dated 1950. Based on orientation of the range fan as depicted on the historical map, it is assumed that mortars were fired from west to east (toward the Atlantic Ocean). Since the use of munitions in this area have not been confirmed by Navy personnel, or other historic documents other than the archival map, munitions and explosives of concern (MECs) may, or may not, be present. Historical and planned investigation and restoration activities at the Mortar Impact Area are included in the Site Management Plan.

Moving Target/Mortar Range - South

The Moving Target Mortar Range - South is located in the southeastern portion of Dam Neck Annex. The boundary of this site overlaps with the Mortar Impact Area. The range was used in the 1940s and 1950s. Based on the range boundaries and period of use, probable munitions used at the Moving Target Mortar Range - South were determined to include .30- and .50-caliber small-arms projectiles and 60-millimeter (mm) and 81-mm mortars. Historical and planned investigation and restoration activities at the Moving Target Mortar Range - South are included in the Site Management Plan.

Skeet and Trap Range

The former Skeet and Trap Range, located on the southwestern portion of Dam Neck Annex on the eastern shore of Lake Tecumseh, was composed of four skeet ranges and four trap ranges, with approximately half of the former range area extending into Lake Tecumseh. Because of the historic activities at this site, debris related to small-arms firing range ammunition may be present. The primary contaminant associated with shotgun ammunition is lead. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) also were identified as potential contaminants because of their association with clay targets. Historical and planned investigation and restoration activities at the Skeet and Trap Range are included in the Site Management Plan.

Moving Target/Mortar Range - North

The Moving Target Mortar Range - North is located in the southeastern portion of Dam Neck Annex. The range was used in the 1940s and 1950s. The suspected target/impact area of the former range lies within the operational range area and is not eligible for investigation under the Munitions Response Program; however, other portions of the site are under investigation. Based on the range boundaries and period of use, probable munitions used at the Moving Target Mortar Range - North were determined to include .30- and .50 caliber small-arms projectiles and 60-millimeter (mm) and 81-mm mortars. Historical and planned investigation and restoration activities at the Moving Target Mortar Range - North are included in the Site Management Plan.

Lake Tecumseh

Lake Tecumseh is a 261-acre lake located along the southwestern boundary of Dam Neck Annex. The 1984 Dam Neck Initial Assessment Study indicated that munitions may have been disposed of in the lake. Planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Potential Sites in the Preliminary Assessment Phase

Potential Land Buffer Parcel

The potential Land Buffer Parcel consists of 27.5 acres located in the northern portion of Dam Neck Annex. Since 1945, the parcel has been used by the Virginia National Guard for military activities. It was part of Naval Amphibious Base, Norfolk, until 1977 when it was transferred to the United States Army. In 2005, citing the need for a land buffer between private development and military operations, the Navy commenced planning activities to support reacquiring the parcel. The property was transferred back to the Navy in 2008. A PA is being conducted to determine if MPPEH/MEC are potentially present due to historical activities. The PA will include data collected from historical records reviews from local and national archives, review of site-specific in-house files, and interviews conducted with Department of Defense personnel capable of providing pertinent information regarding the past use of the potential land buffer parcel. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in the Site Management Plan.

Potential Offshore Rockets

The Potential Offshore Rockets site, consisting of approximately 210 acres, is located offshore within the Atlantic Ocean of the northern portion of Dam Neck Annex. A PA for this site is being conducted in conjunction with the PA for the Potential Land Buffer Parcel. Additional information regarding the historical use of this site obtained from the interviews and archives search will be included in the PA Report. Findings and planned environmental restoration activities are summarized in Site Management Plan.

 

 

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